Background to CWS

The formation of the company was, in part, inspired by the work of two scientists, both of whom have been described as being "Ahead of their time". They were both physicists who published a wide range of papers.  In both cases, they also began to think that the concept of coherence might play an important role in explaining some of the characteristics of the world around us that were, and still are, proving difficult to explain.  In both cases they also felt that no new physics was required; all that was required was a better understanding of how the existing physics can be applied.

Professor Herbert Fröhlich

Fröhlich worked for many years in the University of Liverpool, continuing as an emeritus professor until his death in 1991.  He was responsible for some ground-breaking work on the theory of dielectrics, and did the foundational work that would eventually lead to the understanding of the physics of superconductivity.
In the 1970s he began to consider how coherent vibrational modes in macromolecules might explain how biological activity might be coordinated across significant volumes within living organisms. This hypothesis was based on the interactions of molecules that have an electric dipole, i.e. are positively charged at one end and negatively charged at the other.
Clear evidence to support this hypothesis has proved elusive, although there are still a number of scientists who believe that Fröhlich's original hunch was correct.
Since the 1970s new experimental techniques have provided a wealth of information about the processes that occur within living organisms. It is possible that these show evidence for the coherent interactions that Fröhlich originally proposed, but based on different modes of interactions between the molecules that are involved.


Professor Emilio Del Giudice

I had the privilege and pleasure to meet Emilio a number of times.  Again, he published widely, and also became interested in the possibility that coherence might play a part in the processes within living organisms.
Emilio proposed that the coherence he envisaged was associated with the water molcules and could also be seen in pure water.  He argued that these were responsible for some of the more obscure characteristics of water, such as the 'Exclusion Zone' that has been studied extensively by Jerry Pollack.
The coherence domain in this case is created by the interaction between water molecules whose electrons have been excited to the 12.6eV energy level, just below the level that would result in the electron having enough energy to break free from the water molecule.

Coherence - A synthesis

Both Fröhlich and Emilio have a good record of having a hunch about the nature of the physics behind phenomena which were previously poorly understood.  When they both have a similar hunch about what might be happening within water and living organisms it would be wise to look closely at what they have said.  Applying Occam's Razor would suggest that there is unlikely to be two different coherence mechanisms at work and that we should look instead for a single mechanism, taking inspiration from both Fröhlich and Emilio as to where to look and what to look for.
In addition, there has been extensive experimental work based around the specific coherence mechanisms suggested by both scientists, and clear results to support either proposal have proved elusive.  This suggests that it would be appropriate to revisit the experimental work and keep a more open mind about what alternative coherence mechanisms might be present that gave rise to the macroscopic characteristics that suggest that there are coherent processes present.
It is this that forms the core ethos of the work being carried out by Coherent Water Systems; taking inspiration from the coherence hypothesies of  Fröhlich and Emilio, but being led by the results obtained through quality, innovative, experimental work.
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